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Finland

Table of Contents
  1. 1. Introduction
  2. 2. Key Statistics
  3. 3. Gas Demand
    1. 3.1. Total Primary Energy Consumption by fuel
    2. 3.2. Gas demand by sector
  4. 4. Gas Supply
    1. 4.1. Gas reserves
    2. 4.2. Gas Imports
  5. 5. Gas Infrastructure
    1. 5.1. Gas Grid
    2. 5.2. LNG
    3. 5.3. Storage
  6. 6. Gas Market Regulation
    1. 6.1. Upstream
    2. 6.2. Networks
    3. 6.3. Downstream

1. Introduction

Finland is situated in the northern part of Europe and is bordered to the north by Norway; to the east by Russia; to the south by the Baltic Sea; and to the west by Sweden. Finland has a total surface of 338,424 square kilometers (130,596 sq mi) and is inhabited by approximately 5.4 million people with the majority of inhabitants concentrated in the southern part of the country (2011 estimate). [1]

In 2010, Finland consumed an estimated 4,707 mcm of natural gas. Finland has a natural gas supply per capita of 0.714 toe, with all the gas it consumes coming from imports. Finland’s gas imports have traditionally originated from a single supplier: Russia. [2]  

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2. Key Statistics

Basic Gas Facts - Finland
Basic Gas Facts 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010e
Gas reserves (bcm)          
Gas production (mcm)          
Gas consumption (mcm) 4763 4574 4737 4269 4707
Gas imports (mcm) 4767 4578 4739 4270 4708
-imports pipeline (mcm) 4767 4578 4739 4270 4708
-imports LNG (mcm)          
import dependency (%)* 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Gas exports (mcm)          
Natural gas supply per capita (toe) 0.736 0.704 0.725 0.652 0.741
Technically recoverable shale gas resources (bcm) .. .. .. .. ..
Coal Bed Methane reserves (bcm)** .. .. .. .. ..
c = confidential; - = nill; ..= not available
* Imports dependency of natural gas = (imports - exports) / consumption
**Proven & Probable (2P); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Coalbed Methane Outreach Program
Sources: Natural Gas Information © OECD/IEA, 2011, EIA Analysis & Projections, GMI/EPA Coal Mine Methane Country Profiles

[1], [2]

Basic Energy Facts - Finland
Basic Energy Facts 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010e
Total Energy Consumption (mtoe) 36.97 36.63 35.28 33.17 35.61
CO2 emissions, energy-related (Mt) 71 64.44 56.58 55.01 ..
CO2 intensity, energy-related (tCO2/toe) 1.88 1.77 1.6 1.66 ..
Energy consumption per capita (toe/cap) 6.37 6.40 6.21 .. ..
CO2 per capita, energy-related (tCO2/cap) .. 12.19 10.65 10.3 ..
c = confidential; - = nill; ..= not available
* Import dependency of Total Energy Consumption
Source: Natural Gas Information © OECD/IEA, 2011 & EIA International Energy Statistics

[1], [3]

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3. Gas Demand

This section explores total primary energy consumption and gas demand by sector for Finland.

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3.1. Total Primary Energy Consumption by fuel

In 2010, Finland’s TPEC amounted to 35.62 mtoe, a 7% decrease compared to 2009. In 2010, oil accounted for an estimated 9.14 mtoe, while coal and gas accounted for an estimated 6.73 mtoe and 3.83 mtoe respectively. Other sectors accounted for 15.92 mtoe. [1]

other: nuclear, hydro, geothermal, solar, biofuels & waste, electricity and heat

[1]

*other: nuclear, hydro, geothermal, solar, biofuels & waste, electricity and heat

[1]

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3.2. Gas demand by sector

In 2010, Finland consumed a total of 4,707 mcm of natural gas, 10% more that in the previous year. In 2009, total consumption of gas was 4,269 mcm; 9.88% less than in 2008. Of its consumption in 2009, 2,742 mcm were used for transformation and 723 for industry (excluding the energy industry itself, which used 361 mcm), while 95 mcm was consumed by other sectors.*

Transformation includes the generation of electricity, while the demand from the ‘Industry’ refers to gas used for such things like the chemical-, iron and steel- and machinery industry. The demand from the ‘Energy Sector’ refers to gas used for the extraction of coal, oil, and gas and gas used in refineries, coke ovens and gas works.[1]

*other: commerce and public, residential, agriculture, non-specified

[1]

*other: commerce and public, residential, agriculture, non-specified

[1]

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4. Gas Supply

This section deals with gas reserves and gas imports.

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4.1. Gas reserves

Finland holds insignificant gas reserves, which makes the country 100% dependent on gas imports for its consumption of gas.

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4.2. Gas Imports

Imports by country - Finland
By country of origin (in mcm) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010e %Total 2010
Russia 4767 4578 4739 4270 4708 100%
Total 4767 4578 4739 4270 4708 100%
%Total Consumption 100.08% 100.08% 100.04% 100.02% 100.02%  
c = confidential; - = nill; ..= not available
Source: Natural gas information 2010 & OECD/IEA, 2010

[1]

Imports by transport type - Finland
By transport type (in mcm) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010e %Total 2010
Pipeline imports 4767 4578 4739 4270 4708 100%
LNG imports            
Total 4767 4578 4739 4270 4708 100%
%Total Consumption 100.08% 100.09% 100.04% 100.02% 100.02%  
c = confidential; - = nill; ..= not available
Source: Natural Gas Information © OECD/IEA, 2011

[1]

All of Finland’s gas imports are being accomplished via pipeline, from a single supplier: Russia. In 2010, Finland imported 4,708 mcm from Russia, 10.25% more than in the previous year.

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5. Gas Infrastructure

This section deals with the gas grid, LNG terminals and storage facilities.

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5.1. Gas Grid

Pipeline

At the end of January 2011, the natural gas transmission pipeline was 1,186 km long with an operating pressure of 63 MW and had 205 delivery points. Furthermore, there are 89 connections between the transmission system and distribution system. The main control centre is situated in Kouvola and there is a cross border station at Imatra near the Russian border. [1]

Gas Infrastructure Projects

In February 2011, future investments include one projected pipeline, called the Balticonnector. This new pipeline will be 80 km in length and serves to interconnect the Baltic states and their markets. Also, it provides Security of Supply, flexibility and a bi-directional flow between Finland and Estonia. [1]

Infrastructure proposed-Finland
Project Type Sponsors Total Length (km) Diameter (mm) Technical Cap. Pipes** Power of CS(s) (MW)*** Sources Expected Benefits
Balticonnector Pipeline (incl. CSs*) Gasum 80 500-700 .. 20-30 .. Interconnect Baltic markets, bi-directional flow Finland-Estonia, flexibility, SoS****
*compressor station
**bcm/year
***absorbed power
****Security of Supply
Source: ENTSOG Ten Year Network Development Plan 2011-2020
 

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5.2. LNG

January/February 2011 Finland has one LNG facility planned, namely Finngulf LNG which will have a send out capacity of 4 bcm per year. [1]

LNG-Finland
Site Storage   Regasification     Owner Operator TPA Start-up Source Status
  #Tanks Cap.* Max. Hourly Cap. (mcm) #Vaporizers Cap.**            
Finngulf LNG .. .. 0.5 .. 4 .. .. .. 2016 .. P
c = confidential; - = nill; ..= not available
E = existing; U = under construction; P = proposed
* capacity in m3 x1,000
**nominal capacity in bcm/year of gas
Source: ENTSOG Ten Year Network Development Plan 2011-2020

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5.3. Storage

End 2010, Finland has virtually no storage facilities for natural gas, nor any planned (except for possible storage in aforementioned planned LNG terminal).

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6. Gas Market Regulation

This section deals with the gas market regulation upstream, in the transmission grid and downstream.

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6.1. Upstream

In Finland there are no production or storage facilities. All natural gas consumed in Finland is being imported from one supplier, Russia. No transit of gas takes place. Finland’s main TSO is Gasum Oy founded in 1994. Gasum is responsible for operating, maintaining and extending the natural gas transmission pipeline in Finland. Its present ownership consists of the following parties: Fortum (Finland) 31%, OAO Gazprom (Russia) 25%, Finnish state 24% and E.ON Ruhrgas (Germany) 20%. [1]

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6.2. Networks

In 2011 there were 18 DSOs and one transmission system operator, Gasum Ltd. Approximately 80% of Finnish DSOs were wholly or mainly owned by municipalities. The other 20% of DSOs were owned by other companies in the industry. Pricing of network services was regulated by the Energy Market Authority. TPA is regulated as well. [1]

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6.3. Downstream

Compared to its total consumption of natural gas, the size of the Finnish natural gas retail market is relatively small. Retail supply constitutes only 5% of the total amount of natural gas used in Finland. In 2007 the share of the top three retail suppliers was about 50% of the total volume. [1]

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