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France

Table of Contents
  1. 1. Introduction
  2. 2. Key Statistics
    1. 2.1. Unconventional Gas
  3. 3. Gas Demand
    1. 3.1. Total Primary Energy Consumption by fuel
    2. 3.2. Gas demand by sector
  4. 4. Gas Supply
    1. 4.1. Gas reserves
    2. 4.2. Imports
    3. 4.3. Exports
  5. 5. Gas Infrastructure
    1. 5.1. Gas grid
    2. 5.2. LNG
    3. 5.3. Storage
  6. 6. Gas Market Regulation
    1. 6.1. Upstream
    2. 6.2. Networks
    3. 6.3. Downstream

1. Introduction

France is situated in the western part of Europe and is bordered to the north by the English Channel; to the east by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and Monaco; to the south by Spain and the Mediterranean Sea; to the west by the Atlantic Ocean. France has a total surface of 674,843 km2 making it the biggest country of the European Union by area. France has about 65.35 million inhabitants (2012 estimate). It has the world's fifth largest economy by nominal GDP (2.808 trillion US dollars, 2011 estimate) and is the ninth largest in the world by GDP measured in Purchasing Power Parity (2.216 trillion US dollars, IMF 2011 estimate). France is the most visited country in the world, receiving approximately 82 million foreign tourists annually. It is one of the founding members of the EU and the UN and is a member of the Francophonie, the G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO, and the Latin Union. It also holds a permanent seat in the UN Security Council and possesses the third largest nuclear weapons stockpile in the world. [1]

France is the seventh largest gas consumer of OECD Europe after Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Turkey and UK. France has a natural gas supply per capita of .662 toe in 2010 (estimate). With a relatively small rate of domestic production, France imports the vast majority of its gas volumes from Algeria, Nigeria, Norway, Russia and the Netherlands. [2]

Dit is een test!!

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2. Key Statistics

Basic Gas Facts - France
Basic Gas Facts 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010e
Gas reserves (bcm) .. 7 6 6 5
Gas production (mcm) 1298 1107 962 911 736
Gas consumption (mcm) 45363 44427 46086 44557 49775
Gas imports (mcm) 45501 43816 46446 47134 48917
-imports pipeline (mcm) 32599 32566 36219 36265 34886
-imports LNG (mcm) 12902 11250 10227 10869 14031
import dependency (%)* 98.55% 96.60% 98.03% 100.79% 92.68%
Gas exports (mcm) 798 898 1265 2224 2786
Natural gas supply per capita (toe) 0.625 0.603 0.622 0.596 0.662
Technically recoverable shale gas resources (bcm) .. .. .. 5097.6 ..
Coal Bed Methane reserves (bcm)** .. .. .. .. 28.1
c = confidential; - = nill; ..= not available
* Imports dependency of natural gas = (imports - exports) / consumption
**Proven & Probable (2P); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Coalbed Methane Outreach Program
Sources: Natural Gas Information © OECD/IEA, 2011, EIA Analysis & Projections, GMI/EPA Coal Mine Methane Country Profiles

[1], [2], [3]

Basic Energy Facts - France
Basic Energy Facts 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010e
Total Energy Consumption (mtoe) 236.66 263.89 267.2 256.22 264.23
CO2 emissions, energy-related (Mt) .. 369.31 368.23 354.3 ..
CO2 intensity, energy-related (tCO2/toe) 1.58 1.4 1.38 1.38 ..
Energy consumption per capita (toe/cap) 4.64 4.53 4.54 .. ..
CO2 per capita, energy-related (tCO2/cap) .. 5.81 5.74 5.49 ..
c = confidential; - = nill; ..= not available
Sources: Natural Gas Information © OECD/IEA, 2011 & EIA International Energy Statistics

[1], [2], [4]

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2.1. Unconventional Gas

In an inventory of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Lorraine Basin, the gas in place is assessed at 11.8 billion m3 in the Saint Avold area and at 16.3 billion m3in the Alsting area.[1]

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3. Gas Demand

This section explores total primary energy consumption (TPEC) and gas demand by sector for France.

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3.1. Total Primary Energy Consumption by fuel

In 2010, France’s TPES amounted to 264.23 mtoe, a 3.13% increase compared to 2009. In 2010, oil accounted for 78.07 mtoe, while coal and gas accounted for 12.04 mtoe and 42.82 mtoe respectively. Other sectors, mostly nuclear (42.3% of total), accounted for 131.3 mtoe. [1]

*other: nuclear, hydro, geothermal, solar, biofuels & waste, electricity and heat

[1]

*other: nuclear, hydro, geothermal, solar, biofuels & waste, electricity and heat

[1]

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3.2. Gas demand by sector

In 2010, France consumed an estimated total of 49,775 mcm of natural gas, 12% more than the previous year. In 2009, France consumed a total of 44,557 mcm of natural gas, 3.3% more than in 2008. Of its consumption in 2009, 7,402 mcm were used for transformation and 7,656 for industry (excluding the energy industry itself, which used 239 mcm), while 27,108 mcm was consumed by other sectors.*

Transformation includes the generation of electricity, while the demand from the ‘Industry’ refers to gas used for such things like the chemical-, iron and steel- and machinery industry. The demand from the ‘Energy Sector’ refers to gas used for the extraction of coal, oil, and gas and gas used in refineries, coke ovens and gas works.[1]

*other: commerce and public, residential, agriculture, non-specified

[1]

*other: commerce and public, residential, agriculture, non-specified

[1]

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4. Gas Supply

This section deals with gas reserves and gas imports.

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4.1. Gas reserves

France has very little indigenous gas resources. It hosts approximately 5 bcm of natural gas reserves at the end of 2010. [1] The reserves-to-production ratio* for France is 6.8 years, significantly lower than the EU’s average R/P-ratio of 14 years. [2]

*Reserves-to-production (R/P) ratio – If the reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by the production in that year, the result is the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that rate.

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4.2. Imports

Imports by country - France
By country of origin (in mcm) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010e %Total 2010
Norway 12286 13683 14653 15259 15227 31.13%
Netherlands 9420 8837 9073 8327 7450 15.23%
Russia 7311 5955 6772 7409 6654 13.60%
Algeria 6827 7254 7044 7110 6367 13.02%
Nigeria 3966 2929 2245 1167 3629 7.42%
Egypt 2109 1067 938 1427 665 1.36%
Qatar       459 2503 5.12%
Trinidad & Tobago       360 246 0.50%
Yemen         98 0.20%
Non-specified/Other 3582 4091 5721 5616 6078 12.43%
Total 45501 43816 46446 47134 48917 100%
%Total Consumption 100.30% 98.62% 100.78% 105.78% 98.28%  
c = confidential; - = nill; ..= not available
Source: Natural Gas Information © OECD/IEA, 2011

[1]

Imports by transport type - France
By transport type (in mcm) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010e %Total 2010
Pipeline imports 32599 32566 36219 36265 34886 71.32%
LNG imports 12902 11250 10227 10869 14031 28.68%
Total 45501 43816 46446 47134 48917 100%
%Total Consumption 100.30% 98.62% 100.78% 105.78% 98.28%  
c = confidential; - = nill; ..= not available
Source: Natural Gas Information © OECD/IEA, 2011

[1]

For the first time since 2007, in 2010, gas imports are less than the total consumed gas; imports make up 98.28% of the total consumption. France is the 6th largest gas importer in the world (in absolute terms) after the US, UK, Japan, Germany and Italy. In 2010, around 71% of the French gas imports were transported via pipeline, the other 29% of gas imports originating from LNG. Most of the gas pipeline imports originate from Norway and the Netherlands: 31.13% and 15.23% respectively. The share of Norway, the Netherlands, Russia and Algeria, the four biggest sources of France’s gas imports, in France’s gas imports decreased in 2010 from 80.84% to 72.98% altogether. [1]  

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4.3. Exports

France works as a gas hub for a couple of countries; about 15% of the imported gas is destined only for transit. France transits gas from Norway to Spain and Italy and from Nigeria to Italy. Especially to Italy, transit is expected to grow. [1]

Exports by country-France
By country of destination (in mcm) 2006e 2007e 2008e 2009e 2010e %Total Exports 2010
Other 784 898 1265 2224 2786 100%
Total 784 898 1265 2224 2786 100%
%Total Production 1.83% 2.05% 2.83% 4.75% 5.69%  
c = confidential; - = nill; ..= not available, e = estimated
Source: Natural Gas Information © OECD/IEA, 2011

[1]

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5. Gas Infrastructure

This section deals with the gas grid, LNG terminals and storage facilities.

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5.1. Gas grid

Pipeline

In France there is one production facility, Lacq, of which the ownership lays with Total. Two companies, Total Infrastructures Gas France S.A. (TIGF, Total’s subsidiary company) in Southwestern France and GRTgaz (GDF Suez’s subsidiary company) in the rest of the country, operate the pipeline infrastructure in France. In total, the transmission and distribution networks in France measure 36,000 km and 181,500 km respectively. [1] GRTgaz is a public limited company, founded on the 1st of January 2005 in order to apply the EU directives to the electricity and gas market. GRTgaz operates approximately 32,200 km of steel pipelines and 26 compressor stations (total compressor power 575 MW) and transported about 370 bcm with this infrastructure in 2009. GRTgaz’s pipeline has six main entry/exit points: Dunkerque (importing from Norway), Taisnières H & Taisnières B (for gas from Belgium), Obergailbach (Germany), Oltingue (to Switzerland), and PIR Midi (for France). There are 18 distribution system operators (DSOs) falling under GRTgaz (there are 3,421 connections with DSOs). GRTgaz has 862 directly connected customers and owns ten gas fired power plants. TIGF was established on the 1st of January 2005 for the same reason as GRTgaz. TIGF operates about 5,000 km of steel pipelines, has 4 compressor stations (71 MW) and transported about 9.5 bcm with this in 2009. It has one main entry/exit points with the name TIGF with the main supplier being GRTgaz Sud. There are 9 DSOs falling under TIGF (there are 149 connections with DSOs). TIGF has 133 directly connected customers and owns no gas-fired power plants. [2]

Gas Infrastructure Projects

Both GRTgaz and TIGF are planning some reinforcement investment in their core systems and development of additional entry/exit capacities. [2]

Infrastructure proposed-France
Project Type Sponsors Total Length (km) Diameter (mm) Technical Cap. Pipes** Power of CS(s) (MW)*** Sources Expected Benefits
Interconnection Belgium to France Pipeline (incl. CSs*) linked to interconnections developments GRTgaz 2000 400-1200 .. 290 (8 CSs) .. SoS****, Market Integration (increase of competition)
Bi-directional interconnection Spain - France (PIR MIDI + Chazelle CS) Pipeline (incl. CSs*) linked to interconnections developments GRTgaz     ..   .. SoS, Market Integration (increase of competition)
Interconnection France to Belgium (Taisnieres or Veurne) Pipeline (incl. CSs*) linked to interconnections developments GRTgaz     ..   .. SoS, Market Integration (increase of competition)
Bi-directional interconnection France, Switzerland, Italy (Oltingue) Pipeline (incl. CSs*) linked to interconnections developments GRTgaz     ..   .. SoS, Market Integration (increase of competition)
Interconnection GRTgaz North and GRTgaz South Pipeline (incl. CSs*) linked to interconnections developments GRTgaz .. .. .. .. .. ..
Artere du Béarn (interconnection France - Spain) Pipeline (incl. CSs*) TIGF 214 600-900 ..     Increase gas flow between France and Spain, flexibility of the zone, SoS
Biriatou/Irun (Euskadour) (interconnection France - Spain) Pipeline (incl. CSs*) TIGF     .. .. .. ..
Artere de Guyenne (Phase B: Girland Project) Pipeline (incl. CSs*) TIGF     .. .. .. Increase gas flow between France and Spain, flexibility of the zone, SoS
MIDCAT (France - Spain interconnection) Pipeline (incl. CSs*) TIGF     .. .. .. ..
*compressor station
**bcm/year
***absorbed power
****Security of Supply
Source: ENTSOG Ten Year Network Development Plan 2011-2020
 

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5.2. LNG

August 2011 there were three LNG regasification terminals operating in France with an aggregated nominal capacity of about 25 bcm/year. Projects are initiated for expansion of all three of these. Also, there are three completely new terminals planned: Dunkerque, Le Havre/Antifer (both in the North of France), and Fos Faster (in the south of France, near Marseille). All these expansions and additions will significantly increase France’s LNG capacity (see table).

LNG-France
Site Storage   Regasification     Owner Operator TPA Start-up Source Status
  #Tanks Cap.* Max. Hourly Cap. (mcm) #Vaporizers Cap.**            
Fos-sur-Mer (Fos Tonkin) 3 150 1.15 15 5.8 Elengy Elengy Yes 1972 Algeria, Egypt E
Montoir-de-Bretagne 3 360 1.6 11 10.6 Elengy Elengy Yes 1980 Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Norway, Qatar, T&T, Yemen E
Fos-Cavaou 3 330 1.16 4 8.25-8.7 Société du Terminal Méthanier de Fos Cavaou (STMFC) (Elengy 70%, Total 30%) Elengy Yes 2010 Algeria, Egypt, Qatar E
Dunkerque 3 570 .. .. 13 EDF Dunkerque LNG .. 2014-2015 .. U
Le Havre/Antifer 3 510 1.15 .. 9 GRTgaz GRTgaz .. 2015 .. P (suspended)
Fos-Cavaou (expansion) .. 520 1.18 .. 8.3 GRTgaz GRTgaz .. 2020 .. P
Fos Faster 2-4 360-720 0.9-1.4 .. 8-12 Vopak (90%), Shell (10%) GRTgaz .. 2016 .. P
Fos Tonkin (expansion) .. 240 0.88 .. 7 .. .. .. 2016 .. P
Montoir II .. 360 .. .. 2.5 Elengy Elengy .. 2014 .. P
Montoir III .. 550 0.5 .. 4 Elengy Elengy .. 2017 .. P
c = confidential; - = nill; ..= not available
E = existing; U = under construction; P = proposed
* capacity in m3 x1,000 in LNG
**nominal capacity in bcm/year of gas
Source: Natural Gas Information © OECD/IEA, 2011, GIIGNL 2010, Globallnginfo.com & Gas Infrastructure Europe: GLE LNG Map 2011

[1]

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5.3. Storage

In August 2011 there were 16 operational storage facilities in France with a combined technical storage capacity of 12,395 mcm. There were 12 aquifers, 1 depleted gas field and 3 salt caverns with an aggregated 250 mcm/day withdraw capacity (the depleted gas fields not included in the calculation). [1], [2]

Storage existing-France
Nr. Facility name Operator Storage Capacity (mcm) Withdraw (mcm/day) Injection (mcm/day) TPA* Type
1 Céré-la-Ronde (Centre) Storengy 545 5.6 .. N Aquifer
2 Chémery (Centre) Storengy 3640 58.8 .. N Aquifer
3 Soings-en-Sologne (Centre) Storengy 220 1.7 .. N Aquifer
4 Beynes profond (IdF Sud) Storengy 330 9.6 .. N Aquifer
5 Beynes supérieur Storengy 167 4 .. N Aquifer
6 Saint-Illiers (IdF Sud) Storengy 690 16.3 .. N Aquifer
7 Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (IdF Nord) Storengy 485 5.1 .. N Aquifer
8 Germigny-sous-Colombs (IdF Nord) Storengy 880 9.1 .. N Aquifer
9 Cerville-Velaine (Lorraine) Storengy 650 7.5 .. N Aquifer
10 Gournay-sur-Aronde (Picardie) Storengy 1280 28.2 12   Aquifer
11 Etrez (Salins Sud) Storengy 576 37.3   N Salt Cavern
12 Manosque (Salins Sud) Géométhane 274 13.7 2 N Salt Cavern
13 Tersanne (Salins Sud) Storengy 166 16.9 .. N Salt Cavern
14 Izaute TIGF 1440 12.1 12 N Aquifer
15 Lussagnet TIGF 1052 22.5 12 N Aquifer
16 Trois Fontaines Storengy .. .. .. N Depleted Gas Field
Total     12395 248.4      
* Third Party Access: Regulated ( R) - Negotiated (N) - Hybrid (H) - Not Applicable (X)
Source: Natural Gas Information © OECD/IEA, 2011, Gas Infrastructure Europe: GSE Storage Map 2011

[1], [2]

In addition to the existing storage capacity, in August 2011 there were 9 projected storage facilities in France with a combined technical storage capacity of 2,210 mcm: 3 salt caverns, 1 depleted gas field and 4 aquifers.

Storage proposed-France
Nr. Facility name Operator Storage Capacity (mcm) Withdraw (mcm/day) Injection (mcm/day) TPA* Type
1 Etrez/Manosque Storengy/Géométhane 400 30-32 12 .. Salt Cavern
2 Hauterives Storengy 100 8 2 .. Salt Cavern
3 Céré La Ronde/Soings Storengy 260 5-9 3 .. Aquifer
4 Germigny-sous-Coulombs/Saint-Clair-sur-Epte/Gournay Storengy 55 2 1 .. Aquifer
8 Alsace Sud Storengy 200 9.6 3 .. Salt Cavern
6 Izaute/Lussagnet TIGF 360 .. .. .. Aquifer
7 Pécorade TIGF 750 .. .. .. Depleted gas field
8 Serene Nord Storengy 55 1.8 .. .. Aquifer
9 Trois Fontaines Storengy 30 0.6 .. .. Aquifer
Total     2210 22 21    
*TPA: Regulated ( R) - Negotiated (N) - Hybrid (H) - Not Applicable (X)
Source: Gas Infrastructure Europe: GSE Storage Map 2011 & ENTSOG Ten Year Network Development Plan 2011-2020

[1], [2], [3]

 

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6. Gas Market  Regulation

This section deals with the gas market regulation in upstream, in the transmission grid and downstream.

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6.1. Upstream

France’s main gas supply is secured under long term contracts signed between the national companies in the gas producing countries and the incumbent suppliers (Gazprom, Sonatrach, Statoil, Gasunie, etc.). The French Gas Exchange Point (Point d’Echange de Gaz, PEG) was set up in 2004 and wholesale gas market trading is organized here. There are three physical hubs and virtual trading points (VTP) in France: PEG Nord, PEG Sud, PEG TIGF (VTP only). These ‘PEGs’ are virtual points within each balancing zone where various trading activities take place. The trading carried out at the PEGs is organized on a daily basis (spot market) or under longer term contracts (futures market). [1], [2]  

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6.2. Networks

As mentioned, there are two major infrastructure owners/operators: GRTgaz and TIGF. In 2011, there are 25 Distribution System Operators (DSOs) according to ENTSOG. Under Article 7 of the Gas Act, tariffs for the use of transmission networks, distribution networks and LNG terminal must be jointly made by the Ministers for the Economy and Energy, upon CRE (Commission de Régulation de l’Energie) proposal. Third Party Access to storage facilities is negotiated. The law of 9 August 2004 instituted negotiated accesses to storages, Decree (2006-1034 of 21 August 2006) fixes the principle of use and management of storages. [1], [2], [3]  

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6.3. Downstream

Since July 2004, all industrial consumer can choose their supplier. Since 1 July 2007, the gas market has been open to competition for all customers and they can freely choose their supplier. Most of the suppliers in France provide gas to high volume customers connected to the transmission network. After a while, having gained some experience, some of these suppliers began to extend their services to supply customers connected to the Gaz de France distribution network. At the time there were hardly any alternative suppliers on the networks of local distribution companies. The market shares of alternative suppliers are relative small in France: only 7.4 % out of the 17.1 % of the non-residential customers which have subscribed to market offers, have opted for alternative suppliers at the time. The end user prices are not regulated for customers that chose to enter the free market. For the remaining customers, end user prices continue to be regulated by government on the CRE’s advice. [1], [2]

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